In addition, Libya would be part of a broader effort to reach Maghreb and Muslim-majority countries and improve international public understanding of «American values, policies and initiatives.» 6 From 2004 to 2006, J.-C. Dobriansky and Claudia McMurray, Assistant Secretary for Oceans and International Affairs in The Environment and Science, travelled to Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco to sign S-T agreements and encourage regional dialogues on S-T issues. These S-T agreements with Muslim-majority nations were acts of goodwill. They have not set up joint commissions to verify progress, nor have they been provided with specific funding. Nevertheless, after the signing of the agreement on Libya, there was some commitment from S-T. For example, a program was launched that brought 24 Libyan high school students to the Alabama space camp to generate interest in mathematics and science and engage younger generations. (However, since the political unrest of the Arab Spring, cooperation activities have been suspended.) American research institutes and individual researchers have close links with their counterparts throughout Europe, and in particular in Germany. Indeed, the tradition of extensive cooperation between the United States and Germany dates back more than two hundred years, when the German scientist Alexander von Humboldt met President Thomas Jefferson in 1804. Today, it is implemented through more than fifty bilateral cooperation agreements between institutions.10 Since scientific enterprises are decentralized in Germany and the United States, these partnerships have progressed without oversight by a central agency within federal governments. While many of its European neighbours have S-T agreements, Germany only had one in 2010. The United States and India have a rich history of cooperation in scientific research and education. As early as the 1950s, cooperation in the field of agricultural research developed when U.S. Public Law 480 (PL480, also known as Food for Peace) supported the Green Revolution in India.8 Over the years, funding mechanisms and research cooperation have developed and included an increasing number of U.S.
technical agencies. Partnerships between scientists and scientists continued through the high and major steps of diplomatic relations – in particular disputes over the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and Pakistan – and the representatives of the countries discussed an S-T agreement as early as 1993.